- What is Veda? How many Vedas are there?
- What or who is the source of the Vedas or Vedic texts? Are they human works?
- What is the meaning of Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, Atharvaveda, Itihasa and Purana?
- How old they are?
- What is the theme or a summary of the above mentioned texts?
- What are the Upanishads, Brahmanas and Aranyakas?
- How many Puranas, Itihasa, Upanishads, Brahmanas and Aranyakas are there?
- Why do the Shaiva Puranas and Vishnu Puranas contradict each other?
- Of all the Vedic texts, which text contains the essence of all other texts?
- Which Vedic texts have been commented mostly by the Acharyas?
Q1. What is Veda? How many Vedas are there?
Sanskrit word “Veda” means knowledge. There are total 5 Vedas. Their names are:
- Atharva and
Note: some people say there are 4 Vedas, but it is a false information being spread by those who have half knowledge about the Vedas they know, because the same Vedas call Itihasa and Puranas as the fifth Veda. The Fifth Veda texts also call itself as Fifth Veda. The references which clearly reveals that the Puranas and Itihasa are also Vedas and has the same origin as of the other Vedas are:
Atharva Veda 11.7.24:
“The Rg, Sama, Yajur and Atharva became manifest from the Lord, along with the Puranas and all the Devas residing in the heavens.”
Atharva Veda 15.6.10–12:
“He approached the brhati meter, and thus the Itihasas, Puranas, Gathas and Narasamsis became favorable to him. One who knows this verily becomes the beloved abode of the Itihasas, Puranas, Gathas and Narasamsis.”
Madhyandina-sruti, Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 2.4.10:
“O Maitreya, the Rg, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Vedas as well as the Itihasas and the Puranas all manifest from the breathing of the Lord.”
Gopatha Brahmana, purva 2.10:
“In this way, all the Vedas were manifested along with the Kalpas, Rahasyas, Brahmanas, Upanisads, Itihasas, Anvakhyatas and the Puranas.”
Kauthumiya Chandogya Upanisad 7.1.4
“Indeed, Rg, Yajur, Sama and Atharva are the names of the four Vedas. The Itihasas and Puranas are the fifth Veda.”
Srimad Bhagavatam 3.12.39:
Itihasa and Puranas are Fifth Veda.
Q2. What or who is the source of the Vedas or Vedic texts? Are they human works?
The Vedas are not human works, they are composed by the incarnation of Supreme Personality of Godhead, i.e. Vyasadeva who appeared in the Kuru dynasty as the son of Satyavati and Parashara muni. When we say “composed”, it doesn’t mean they were written and didn’t existed before, it just mean they were put into the literary form for the benefit of the people of the current age called Kaliyuga. Before the starting of the Kaliyuga, Srila Vyasadeva, being another incarnation of Lord Krsna, the supreme personality of Godhead and therefore being able to look into the future, saw that men in this age have a little lifespan, a degraded memory and almost no interest in spirituality. So, for our betterment, and the betterment of the entire universe, He wrote down the Primary Vedas, Puranas, Upanishads etc. He did this so that we don’t have to learn everything and which was not possible for us either. Before this, everything was passed down from in the oral form from the generation to generation through the various disciplic chains!
What or who is the source of Veda/knowledge?
The Verses mentioned in the Q1 reveals that the source of Vedas is indeed the Supreme Person, the absolute truth. Further, it is said:
In the Purusa-sukta [Rig Veda, mandala 10, sukta 90, mantra 9] it is stated,
“From Him, Yajnya, came all sacrificial offerings, hymns of invocation and songs of praise. All the mantras of the Vedas come from the Lord.”
It is stated in the Srimad-Bhagavatam [6.1.40]: “That which is prescribed in the Vedas constitutes dharma, the religious principles, and the opposite of that is irreligion. The Vedas are directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa, and are self-born. This we have heard from Yamarāja.”
For detailed info. please read our article on “origin of the Vedas” Here.
Q3. What is the meaning of Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, Atharvaveda, Itihasa and Purana?
Rigveda means Veda of praise. Yajurveda means Veda of rituals. Samaveda means Veda of melodies, Atharva veda means Veda of chants. Itihasa means history. Puranas means that which makes the other vedas complete (puranat puranam iti canyatra).
Q4. How old they are?
All the Vedic texts originally are beginning-less, since their origin is itself eternal Supreme Person. From the historical point of view, all the Vedic texts are at least 5000 years old. Of them, the Rigveda is said to be 23000 years old.
Even though there are concrete evidences (like: Dating/Antiquity of Srimad Bhagavatam) about ancient nature of the Puranas and Itihasa, some researchers have speculated that these texts are of later date, because their Sanskrit is different from the Sanskrit found in the Primary Vedas. But, in reality, it is not the case.
The Vedic Version states that all creation evolves from sound. First there is sound and sound produces space or ether. It even says in the Bible (which contains some teachings similar to Sanatana Dharma) – first there was the word. So all the elements of matter proceed from sound. It goes from subtle to gross – ahankara or false ego, intelligence, mind, air, fire, water and earth. These 8 elements and their qualities or senses constitute matter. The sense of space is sound. The sense of air is feeling. The sense of fire is form. The sense of water is taste. The sense of earth is smell. Also, the quality of an element is present in the one that comes after it.
That’s how the yogis and sages of former times had what we today would call supernatural powers. But it’s not supernatural. It’s completely natural. You just have to know the science behind it. When you know the right sounds, you can create or dissolve matter. This is known to some degree in modern science after it was observed that certain sound frequencies can splinter glass.
So, the Shruti portion of the Vedas contain mantras, knowing which, one can manipulate matter. Obviously, this only works when the mantra or the sound is pronounced exactly right. That’s why one need to learn this from a living teacher. Shruti means that which is heard. You have to hear the mantra and learn how to pronounce it, in order for the sound of the mantra to have the desired effect. For instance, the Bhagavat Purana documents an event, where the Brahmanas or the sages killed king Vena by uttering sounds.
Now, the Smriti portion of the Vedas contain the philosophy and theology, the moral and ethics and the histories of ancient India. Smriti means that which is remembered. You can learn about philosophy and dharma by hearing it from someone who has remembered it. Your understanding of what is being taught is not dependent on the the correct pronunciation of the Sanskrit. You simply have to remember it, and it will work even though you don’t utter the language or the words in a certain way.
That’s why the Sanskrit of the Vedas is different in the Shruti and the Smriti.
Some scholars have suggested that it shows the Sanskrit has changed over time, but that is pure speculation without any support in the Vedic tradition. According to the Vedic tradition, what is seen is simply two types of Sanskrit in Shruti and Smriti.
The shruti mantras are to be pronounced exactly precise, in order for them to work. The smriti mantras just have to be remembered. Philosophy, theology, religion and history you remember. Mantras to kill people or to create strong winds and rain, or fire, or whatever, have to be pronounced exactly correct. It is mentioned in the Srimad Bhagavatam that Kardama Muni created an entire mansion in the sky by sound vibrations. That happened in Satya-yuga, several million years ago when the science of uttering mantras were known to the Vedic sages.
Q5. What is the theme or a summary of the above mentioned texts?
The Rig-veda, the “Veda of Praise,” contains 1,017 hymns, or 10,522 verses, arranged in ten books or mandalas. The first eight mostly contain hymns of praise to the various demigods, such as Indra and Agni. The ninth book deals primarily with the soma ritual, which was the extraction and purification of the juice of the soma herb. The tenth book contains suktas or verses of wisdom and mantras that would cause certain magical effects to take place. The Rig-veda hymns were mainly of praise to the gods that were invoked during the Vedic ceremonies for ensuring immediate material needs. These were chanted by the four priests who conducted the Vedic rituals, namely the hota who calls the gods with the mantras from the Rig-veda; the adhvaryu who performs all the rituals of the ceremony according to the Yajur-veda; the udgata who sings the Sama-veda mantras; and the brahmana who supervises the general ceremony. However, it was usually only the brahmana priests who could be sure of chanting the mantras accurately to produce the desired result. If the mantra was chanted incorrectly by someone who was not qualified, the desired result would not take place and often something undesirable or horrible would happen instead.
The main gods in the Rig-veda were Indra (the god of heaven and rain), Agni (the fire god) and Surya (the sun god). Surya is invoked in the sacred Gayatri mantra. However, Surya is also called Surya-Narayana in the Rig-veda. So the hymns to Surya and his different forms can also be related to Narayana or Vishnu, especially those to Savitur. Vishnu is also known as the Pervader, meaning that all the Vedic gods are absorbed in Him, and thus must also emanate from Him. They would be absorbed in Him during the time of cosmic annihilation, but would also emanate from Him during the time of the creation. There were also verses to three other names and forms of the sun god, namely Savitri, Mitra and Pooshan. Other gods included Dyos (a celestial god), Varuna (god of the seas), Soma, Marut (god of air or wind called Vayu in other places), Rudra (a form of Shiva) and Vishnu. All of these gods are celestial gods, or demigods, except for Rudra and Vishnu. There is also the important Purusha Sukta hymn in the 90th chapter of the Rig-veda’s tenth mandala.
The Yajur-veda is the “Veda of Rituals” and contains 1975 verse-mantras in 40 chapters, many of which are similar to those in the Rig-veda and used in rituals, usually by the adhvaryu priest. These contain different levels of knowledge and wisdom. The Yajur-veda once had 109 branches of knowledge, but now only parts of seven branches are found, of which the Vajasaneyi is prominent. The Yajur-veda, however, has two samhitas, or collections of verses, known as the White Yajur-veda (or Vajasaneyi-samhita) with the hymns and rituals, and the Black Yajur-veda (or Taittiriya-samhita) with their interpretations. These were primarily for the priests to use as a guide in performing sacred rituals, such as the ashvamedha or rajasuya, since they also contain directions or formulas that the priests use along with the verses that are sung during the ceremony.
The Sama-veda, the “Veda of Melodies,” contains 1549 verses meant to be used as songs in various ceremonies, primarily for the udgata priest. Most of them are taken from the Rig-veda and arranged according to their use as utilized in particular rituals. From the original 1000 branches of the Sama-veda, three are still available, of which the Kauthumiya and Jaiminiya are prominent.
The Atharva-veda is the “Veda of Chants” and once had 50 branches of which we have only the Shaunak branch today. It is a book of 5977 verses in 20 chapters containing prayers, spells, and incantations which in some respects resemble magical instructions found in the Tantras and even various magical incantations found in Europe. The Atharva-veda contains a small section of verses of instruction, wisdom, descriptions of the soul and God, but the majority of it consists of rules for worshiping the planets, rules for oblations and sacrifices, prayers for averting evil and disease, incantations for the destruction of foes, for fulfilling personal desires, etc., mostly for the material needs of people.
The Itihasas helps explain the rituals of the first 4 Vedas and the highly compressed philosophy of the Vedanta-sutras by using historical events of the universe and factual stories of many great sages, demigods, and so forth.
Included in the Itihasas is the Mahabharata, written by Srila Vyasadeva. It is an historical epic about the great kingdom of Bharatavarsa, or the region of India. It contains 110,000 couplets making it the longest poem and greatest epic in world literature. It is divided into 18 sections called parvas, such as the Adi Parva, etc. It is a treasure house of Indian lore and holds within it a code of life for ethical, social and spiritual relations. Throughout this great epic every sort of human situation is described and every kind of emotion is aroused. There is a saying that if it is not in the Mahabharata then it is not to be found.
The Mahabharata deals with the activities of the Pandavas and Krishna’s relations, as well as topics that include the creation of the world, history of the sages, dharma, politics, military strategies, proper behavior of a king, and ways of spirituality and devotion to God. It includes the essence of the Upanishads and Vedic teachings, and the famous Bhagavad-gita.
The Mahabharata also explains a great variety of historical incidents, mainly consisting of the story of how the demoniac Kuru dynasty cheated the family of pious Pandavas time and time again out of their rightful heritage of the kingdom of northern India. Finally, after the Pandavas are exiled to the forest and attempted peaceful means to gain their right to the throne, the epic centers around the eighteen day battle at Kuruksetra, a place which is still found in Madhyadesa, a three hour train ride north of Delhi. There the Pandava army defeated the Kurus and their soldiers. This is also where Sri Krishna speaks the Bhagavad-gita to His friend Arjuna just before the battle takes place.
The Bhagavad-gita is from chapters 25 to 42 of the Bishma-parva section of the Mahabharata. It is a classic of Indian literature and considered the essence of all Vedic knowledge. It is the indispensable Upanishad and the important handbook or guide for traveling the spiritual path to God realization. It is especially good for those who do not have much time for reading or who cannot go very deeply into studying the Vedic literature. It contains knowledge of the soul, law of karma, reincarnation, attaining the Supreme, knowledge of God, and the essential purpose of life. It ultimately reveals the supremacy of the path of devotion, bhakti-yoga, as the best means for regaining our awareness of our relationship with the Supreme Lord. More importantly, the Bhagavad-gita is the direct instruction from God to His devotee. The Mahabharata is especially meant to draw the attention of people to the Bhagavad-gita through the format of an exciting, historical adventure, which is certainly found in the Mahabharata.
The Ramayana is a similar epic, consisting of 24,000 verses, and first written during the time of Lord Ramachandra by the great poet Valmiki, which describes the life of Lord Ramachandra, an incarnation of God, and His wife Sita. This is also a most touching and exciting adventure which explains how Lord Ramachandra lived in the forest and fought against and killed the great demon Ravana and his armies in order to rescue His wife, Sita, who had been kidnapped. Many other stories are included in this storehouse of wisdom that has been an inspiration for thousands of years to all people who have read it. In the incarnation of Lord Ramachandra, God appears as the perfect king and ruler, and inspires all His subjects with the greatest love for Him.
The Puranas are known as Puranas, because they makes other vedas complete. This is not to suggest that the other vedas are incomplete. It simply means that the Puranas are explanatory supplements which aid one to understand the concise and ambiguous passages in the other Vedas.
The Puranas are the histories of the universe and contain many stories that took place on earth or even on other planets and dimensions, or in which superhuman powers are commonplace. The Vedic knowledge often consists of information about things from beyond our own sense perception or experience. We can be assured of its authenticity because of the fact that many Vedic scholars such as Sukadeva, Maitreya, Madhva, Ramanuja, Baladeva and others have reached spiritual perfection with the help of information found in the Puranas.
Each Purana is supposed to contain five basic subjects and in some cases ten. These include the creation of the world, its destruction and re-creation, the genealogy of the patriarchs and the demigods, the reigns of the Manus (who are the avataras in each duration of time known as a manvantara), and the history of the Solar and Lunar dynasties. Many of them also include descriptions of the activities of the incarnations of God, as well as the great sages and devotees of God. One thing that may seem somewhat confusing is that the stories are not in any particular chronological order and may be related at any time according to need. This is primarily due to the fact that the Puranas are generally related in a dialogue of questions and answers between sages and saints, or masters and disciples. Then the histories and stories are related in the answers.
Other subjects included in various Puranas are geography, astrology, use of military weapons, organization of society, duties of different classes of men, characteristics of social leaders, predictions of the future, law of reincarnation and karma, analysis of the material elements, symptoms of consciousness, how the illusory energy works, the practice of yoga, meditation, spiritual experiences, realizations of the Absolute, etc.
The Puranas explain more clearly and completely the spiritual philosophy found in the four original Veda samhitas (namely the Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva). Thus, they especially are meant for all classes of people. Since all men are not on the same level of consciousness and are spread over many different types of thinking, feeling and desiring, the Puranas are divided so that any class of people can take advantage of them and utilize them to get out of the material entanglement either gradually or rapidly. So, depending on their position in life, people may use the particular Puranas that are most suited for them.
Q6. What are the Upanishads, Brahmanas and Aranyakas?
Although the four primary Vedas include the concept of spiritual perfection or liberation, it is not so thoroughly developed or presented. Therefore, to help one understand what the goal of Vedic philosophy is, there are also other compositions along with the four Vedas, namely the Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and the Upanishads.
The Brahmanas are compositions that accompany different portions of the Veda Samhitas with additional directions and details that the brahmana priests would use when performing the sacrificial rituals, along with some of their histories. They include the Aitareya, the Shankhayan or Kausitaki, and the Shatpath and Taittariya Brahmanas that are connected to the Rig-veda. These contain such instructions as what to meditate on and how to chant the mantras while conducting the sacrifice, etc. The Brahmanas also hold cosmological legends and stories that explain the reason for performing the Vedic rituals, along with the esoteric significance of the mantras and sacrificial rituals. They also describe the verses in the main Samhitas. Furthermore, they provide the seeds of the systematic knowledge of the Sutras, and can be used by the village householders.
The Panchvinsha, Shadvinsha, and Tandya Brahmanas belong to the Sama-veda, while the Jaiminiya and Gopatha Brahmanas belong to the Atharva-veda. The Shatapatha Brahmana, a large volume of 100 chapters authored by Yajnavalkya, is said to belong to the Shukla Yajur-veda.
The Aranyakas are sacred writings that are supposed to frame the essence of the Upanishads and are considered to be secret and dangerous to the uninitiated. The Aranyakas reveal more of the esoteric aspects of the rituals and their purposes than the Brahmanas. They are meant only for the brahmana priests and kshatriya warriors who have renounced all materialistic activities, and retired to the solitude of the forests, which is the meaning of “aranyaka.” They include a strict style of worship to particular forms or aspects of God. These instructions could consist of which mantras to use for particular purposes, how to sit, in which time of the morning to practice, the devotions to incorporate into the practice, and so on.
Next we come to the Upanishads, which is the main part of the Aranyakas and constitute one of the most sacred portions of Vedic philosophy. There are three main sections of the Vedic scriptures. The Upanishads and Aranyakas are part of the jnana-kanda section, meaning they contain knowledge meant for introspection and contemplation. The four main Samhitas and Brahmanas which deal primarily with ritual are a part of the karma-kanda classification, meant for appeasing the gods for one’s necessities and desires, and for helping purify the mind. The upasana-kanda section consists of those instructions on devotional service to God, which is found in in the Vedanta-Sutras, the Puranas and other books.
Q7. How many Puranas, Itihasa, Upanishads, Brahmanas and Aranyakas are there?
There are total 18 Puranas, namely Bhagavata, Vishnu, Narada or Naradiya, Garuda, Padma, Varaha, linga, Skanda, Agni, Matsya, Kurma, Shiva, Brahma, Brahmanda, Brahma-vaivarta, Markandeya, Bhavisya and Vamana Purana
There are two Itihasas, namely Mahabharata and Ramayana.
Originally, (As per Kurma Purana 52.19-20, Patanjali Mahabhashya and Kalidasa’s works) the Brahmanas consisted of 1180 branches, with the same number of Aranyakas and Upanishads. Unfortunately, only a few of these branches remain today. There are total 18 Brahmanas, 7 Aranyakas and 220 Upanishads present today. Of all the Upanishads, 108 Upanishads are accepted as authentic ones by all the Vedic schools (4 Sampradayas). To know about the names of all the 108 Upanishads, click Here
Of all the Upanishads, the Īśa, Kena, Kaṭha, Praśna, Muṇḍaka, Māṇḍūkya, Taittirīya, Aitareya, Chāndogya, Bṛhad-āraṇyaka and Śvetāśvatara are considered as Major Upanishads by Acharyas. Of all the principle or Major Upanishads, the Īśa upanishad is foremost one.
Q8. Why do the Shaiva Puranas and Vishnu Puranas contradict each other?
They do not contradict each other, if you observe them from higher perspective.
From Sri Tattva Sandarbha
As with the Primary Vedas, independent study of the Firth Veda, i.e. Puranas yields no clear conclusion, because each Purana seems to establish a different deity as the supreme. The Shiva Purana proclaims Lord Shiva supreme, the Vishnu Purana, Lord Vishnu, and so on. The result is confusion for one who studies them without proper guidance. Such a student will not know whether to worship Shiva, Vishnu, Devi, or some other deity.
Shrila Jiva Gosvami gives the solution to this problem in the text 18.1 of Sri Tattva Sandarbha.
Such being the facts, we can understand that the Puranas mentioned in the Matsya Purana are divided into natural categories according the kinds of days of Brahma they contain narrations of. But how can we define a hierarchy of these categories to determine which is superior? It might be suggested that this can be done with a hierarchy of the modes of nature–goodness, passion and ignorance. If so, we can conclude that Puranas and other scriptures in the mode of goodness have the most authority to teach us about transcendental reality, according to the reasoning of such statements as “From the mode of goodness knowledge develops” [Bg. 14.17] and “In the mode of goodness one can realize the Absolute Truth” [Bhag. 1.2.24].
One may ask at this point why Srila Vyasadeva wrote these Puranas.
According to the various desires of the materially conditioned jivas, he arranged the Puranas. Nevertheless, all Puranas contain glorification of Lord Visnu. This was included by Vyasa in order that those in the lower modes of passion and ignorance will slowly develop interest in the Supreme Lord Hari while studying the rajasika and tamasika Puranas. Therefore, in the Hari Vamsa (3.323.34) it is said –
vede ramayane caiva purane bharate tatha
adav-ante ca madhye ca harih sarvatra giyate
“In the Vedas, the Ramayana, Puranas and Mahabharata, from the very beginning to the end, as well as within the middle, only Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is explained.”
Yet it must be understood that although rajasika and tamasika Puranas do not speak extensively on the Absolute Truth, this does not mean that they give no valid knowledge at all. If this was the case why would acaryas such as Madhva and Baldeva cite from Puranas such as Skanda, Brahma, Brahmanda, Brahma-vaivarta etc which are not sattvika by nature? The Puranas in the lower modes may also give some insight into the Absolute Truth, although not to the same extent as the sattvika Puranas.
Q9. Of all the Vedic texts, which text contains the essence of all other texts?
The Srimad Bhagavad-Gita which is also known as Gitopanishad, the Supreme Upanishad. In the Bhagavad-gita, Lord Krishna explains the complete essence of all the Vedic texts. In the Gita Mahatmya, it is said:
“One may cleanse himself daily by taking a bath in water, but if one takes a bath even once in the sacred Ganges water of Bhagavad-gita, for him the dirt of material life is altogether vanquished.”
“Because Bhagavad-gita is spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one need not read any other Vedic literature. One need only attentively and regularly hear and read Bhagavad-gita. In the present age, people are so absorbed in mundane activities that it is not possible for them to read all the Vedic literatures. But this is not necessary. This one book, Bhagavad-gita, will suffice, because it is the essence of all Vedic literatures and especially because it is spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.”
“All the Upanisads are like a cow, and the milker of the cow is Lord Shri Krishna, the son of Nanda. Arjuna is the calf, the beautiful nectar of the Gita is the milk, and the fortunate devotees of fine theistic intellect are the drinkers and enjoyers of that milk.”
Q10. Which Vedic texts have been commented mostly by the Acharyas?
Srimad Bhagavad-gita and Srimad Bhagavatam have more commentaries than any other Vedic text. The Bhagavad-gita is Most famous, Most basic and Most advanced Vedic text. It has more than 100 commentaries. The Srimad Bhagavatam or Bhagavata Purana is like an official commentary on the Bhagavad-gita (BG). After studying the BG, One comes to the understanding that Krishna is the supreme personality of Godhead and the highest perfection of human life is to serve Krishna with unalloyed love as well as devotion. The Srimad Bhagavatam (SB) starts where the following verse of BG ends:
sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja ahaṁ tvāṁ sarva-pāpebhyo mokṣayiṣyāmi mā śucaḥ “Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reactions. Do not fear.” — Bg 18.66
SB starts when one surrenders to Krishna wholeheartedly. SB is full of loving dealings between Krishna and his pure devotees. As long as one’s mind is materially contaminated by lusty desire, that person will never able to relish SB and appreciate the activities of the Lord. So to approach SB, one has to be completely free from any kind of material hankering for personal sense gratification. And that can only possible when we practically apply the teachings of the BG in our daily life along with devotional service starting from chanting, hearing, remembering to the serving. So, when in this type of moods we start hearing SB which is full of juicy pastimes of lord, then the Love for Krishna revives in our heart and then the perfection of Life can be achieved i.e. Love of Godhead which is beyond Moksha. Srimad Bhagavatam is also known as official commentary on Brahma Sutras (written by Vyasadeva which reveals the conclusion of the Vedanta (Upanishads)) by Vyasadeva himself, as it is stated in the Garuda Purana:
“The Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the authorized explanation of Brahma-sūtra, and it is a further explanation of Mahābhārata. It is the expansion of the gāyatrī mantra and the essence of all Vedic knowledge. This Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, containing eighteen thousand verses, is known as the explanation of all Vedic literature.”
There are hundreds of verses of the Srimad Bhagavatam pertaining verses of the Brahma Sutras. To see them side by side, click here.
Srimad Bhagavatam has more than 40 commentaries by Acharyas.
♥ Hare Krishna ♥